In Bangladesh, according to the government estimate, around 12 lakh indigenous people of 27 ethnic groups live in the country. Non-government organizations however put the number of ethnic groups between 40 and 50 with a total population of 20 lakh. These communities mainly live in the southeast (Chittagong Hill Tracts) region, north, north-central plains, northeast region and in the coastal belt.
The malignant boil, which was planted by a despotic ruler, is still working as a cause of distress for the microscopic nationality. Many indigenous families were evicted from their ancestral land and homesteads as outsider settlers (dominant group) grabbed their lands. Historically, microscopic communities have no document concerning their ownership over their land. It is traditional that they do not require any paper document of their land. This is also acknowledged by Art. 25 of the Universal Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. It enumerates: “Indigenous peoples have the right to keep and strengthen their distinctive spiritual relationship with their land and waters”. Moreover, Art 26 added: “Indigenous peoples have the right to own and control the use of their land, waters and other resources. Indigenous laws and customs shall be recognised”.
The recently fervid sore of Bhaghaichari (19-20 Feb. 2010) is not detached from the heart of Adivasis, when we witnessed massive violation of human rights. Dominant group attacked them with the aid of law enforcing agencies. The “Peace Accord, 1997” is still not properly implemented. Each government avoids the lawful rights of those people by taking shelter of fraud, so that they expose reluctance to execute the accord fully. After withdrawing some military camp from a part of CHT area, during the period of 14 party alliance government groups of people are frantic to set up new camps of RAB there. However, CHT area is not beyond the area of Bangladesh as stated Art. 2 of the Constitution. Hence, that is why indigenous people are also entitled to enjoy same rights as of dominant group. Appointment of additional number of military or RAB forces reflected the mentality of suppression of the government. It shows that indigenous people are somewhat dissimilar from governing group.